The Sui dynasty sets up their capital at Chang’an , which has been preferred capital for last 16 centuries by almost a dozen dynasties up to this point. The Sui, who only last for merely 73 years, will pave the way and lay the foundation for the success of the Tang dynasty (Wikipedia – Sui dynasty). Head of a Bodhisattva from China's Sui Dynasty. Between these policies, invasions into China from Turkic nomads, and his growing life of decadent luxury at the expense of the peasantry, he lost public support and was eventually assassinated by his own ministers. Emperor Yang conscripted many soldiers for the campaign. Dynasty that ruled over China from 581 to 618, Administrative division of the Sui dynasty circa 610 AD, Emperor Yang and the reconquest of Vietnam, In 617, the rebel general Li Yuan (the later. With Emperor Wen's diplomatic maneuver, the Khaganate split into Eastern and Western halves. The century's trend of gradual conquest of the southern dynasties of the Han Chinese by the northern dynasties, which were ruled by ethnic minority Xianbei, would become inevitable. Started from 581 and ended in 618, the Sui Dynasty lasted for only 38 years and had only three emperors. He had gone South after the capital being threatened by various rebel groups and was killed by his advisors (Yuwen Clan). He further extended the empire, but unlike his father, did not seek to gain support from the nomads. Wide-ranging reforms and construction projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, with long-lasting influences beyond their short dynastic reigns. Having won the support of Confucian scholars who held power in previous Han dynasties (abandoning the nepotism and corruption of the nine-rank system), Emperor Wen initiated a series of reforms aimed at strengthening his empire for the wars that would reunify China. Sui Dynasty If incorrect, please navigate to the appropriate directory location. While formerly the Duke of Sui when serving at the Zhou court, where the character "Sui 隨" literally means "to follow" and implies loyalty, Emperor Wen created the unique character "Sui (隋)", morphed from the character of his former title, as the name of his newly founded dynasty. The founding of the Sui Dynasty put an end to a long period of division and turbulence and unified the whole nation. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which largely inherited its foundation. With a tyrannical second emperor - Emperor Yang, theSui Dynasty was often compared to the Qin Dynasty(221 BC - 206 BC). There were Dukedoms for the offspring of the royal families of the Zhou dynasty, Sui dynasty, and Tang dynasty in the Later Jin (Five Dynasties). The Sui also set the stage for and began to set in motion an artistic and cultural renaissance that reached its zenith The Map of the Sui Dynasty shows the land under the rule of the Sui Dynasty and the location of the Grand Canal. Philadelphia, PA 19104-6305 USA . Category title. Buddhism gained prominence during the period when central political control was limited. www.sino-platonic.org. Start Your 10-Day Free Trial Search 350,000+ online teacher resources. The Sui army feigned retreat and dug pits to trap the elephants, lured the Champan troops to attack then used crossbows against the elephants causing them to turn around and trample their own soldiers. In the late 6th century CE China was still beset with warring states who incessantly vied with each other for greater wealth and power. It was six times the size of the present-day city of Xi’an at the same site. This was the start of the Tang dynasty, one of the most-noted dynasties in Chinese history. In 577, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Qi and reunified the North China. Browse by Subject Sui Dynasty. They were led in their campaign to unite China by Yang Chien who had been an official of the Northern Zhou. Available for sale from Barakat Gallery, Sui Dynasty, Sui Stone Head of a Bodhisattva (Sui Dynasty, c. 581 , 618 A.D.), Stone, 8 1/4 in In 588, the Sui had amassed 518,000 troops along the northern bank of the Yangtze River, stretching from Sichuan to the East China Sea. Emperor Yang of Sui (569–618) ascended the throne after his father's death, possibly by murder. While early Buddhist teachings were acquired from Sanskrit sutras from India, it was during the late Six dynasties and Sui dynasty that local Chinese schools of Buddhist thoughts started to flourish. Emperor Yang of Sui (569–618) ascended the throne after his father's death, possibly by murder. Victor H. Mair, Editor . The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (Five Barbarians) within its territory. The Sui Dynasty was one of the shortest in Chinese history, but has a rich history that still influences China in the modern day. By the middle of the dynasty, the newly unified empire entered a golden age of prosperity with vast agricultural surplus that supported rapid population growth. Later, Emperor Yang enormously enlarged the scale of the Grand Canal construction. Nevertheless, the celebrated "[Reign of Kaihuang" (era name of Emperor Wen)" was considered by historians as one of the apexes in the two millennium imperial period of Chinese history. This army was so enormous it recorded in historical texts that it took 30 days for all the armies to exit their last rallying point near Shanhaiguan before invading Goguryeo. Sino-Platonic Papers. In the following year, Yang Jian staged a coup, seized the throne for himself, a… The Sui Emperors were from the northwest military aristocracy, and emphasized that their patrilineal ancestry was ethnic Han, claiming descent from the Han official Yang Zhen. Though ephemeral, the Sui Dynasty provides a stable society that encouraged political and economic achievements. [6], The Hanoi area formerly held by the Han and Jin dynasties was easily retaken from the Early Lý dynasty ruler Lý Phật Tử in 602. The Sui dynasty (581–618), which reunified China after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation during which the north and south had developed in different ways, played a part far more important than its short span would suggest. The Northern Zhou, known as the reign of Yuwen family of the Xianbei ethnic group, continued for 24 years with five emperors over three generations. He established granaries as sources of food and as a means to regulate market prices from the taxation of crops, much like the earlier Han dynasty. This includes not only the major public works initiated, such as the Great Wall and the Great Canal, but also the political system developed by Sui, which was adopted by Tang with little initial change other than at the top of the political hierarchy. During the last few years of the Sui dynasty, the rebellion that rose against it took many of China's able-bodied men from rural farms and other occupations, which in turn damaged the agricultural base and the economy further. Top Places You Should Visit in China's Warm Spring, The Sui Dynasty — a Short but Significant Dynasty. Rituals and sacrifices were conducted by the Sui.[25]. Buddhism created a unifying cultural force that uplifted the people out of war and into the Sui dynasty. 1. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Sui Dynasty (589 – 618 AD) Map of the Northern and Southern Dynasties in the year 560 AD (Click on the image to see it larger)The process of eventual Chinese reunification was already set in motion in 577 AD, when the Northern Zhou state (557 AD - 581 AD) defeated and incorporated the Northern Qi state (550 AD - 577 AD). [23] Men would deliberately break their limbs in order to avoid military conscription, calling the practice "propitious paws" and "fortunate feet. [20] He noted that the ruler was named "Taisson", which he claimed meant "Son of God", perhaps Chinese Tianzi (Son of Heaven) or even the name of the contemporary ruler Emperor Taizong of Tang.[21]. In his campaign for southern conquest, Emperor Wen assembled thousands of boats to confront the naval forces of the Chen dynasty on the Yangtze River. Sui Dynasty (581 — 618) ended centuries of separation and chaos and opened up a new flourishing chapter in Chinese history, but also was ended very sudden by a controversial emperor. Started from 581 and ended in 618, the Sui Dynasty lasted for only 38 years and had only three emperors. This includes not only the major public works initiated, such as the Great Wall and the Great Canal, but also the political system developed by Sui, which was adopted by Tang with little initial change other than at the top of th… The state capital of Chang'an (Daxing), while situated in the militarily secure heartland of Guanzhong, was remote from the economic centers to the east and south of the empire. When one of the northern Chinese states’ turbulent politics began harming residents, the Han (who inhabited this state) desperately selected governor Yang Chien to lead their administration. Established: 581, replacing the Northern Zhou Dynasty 3. Als der letzte Kaiser der Nördlichen Zhou-Dynastie (ein krankhafter Despot) im Jahr 580 starb, beseitigte Yang Jian sämtliche Erben und übernahm 581 als Kaiser mit dem Titel Wendi selbst die Macht. Contribution: united China (589), construction of the Grand Canal and Great Wall 6. Bild von Ruins of Sui Dynasty Renshou Palace and Tang Dynasty Jiucheng Palace, Linyou County: DSC_0204 - Schauen Sie sich 7 authentische Fotos und Videos von Ruins of Sui Dynasty Renshou Palace and Tang Dynasty Jiucheng Palace an, die von Tripadvisor-Mitgliedern gemacht wurden. It was extended north from the Hangzhou region across the Yangzi to Yangzhou and then northwest to the region of Luoyang. After a series of costly and disastrous military campaigns against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea,[3][4][5] ended in defeat by 614, the dynasty disintegrated under a series of popular revolts culminating in the assassination of Emperor Yang by his minister, Yuwen Huaji in 618. University of Pennsylvania . Yu Taishan . Image. The Map of the Sui Dynasty shows the land under the rule of the Sui Dynasty and the location of the Grand Canal. The city was razed to the ground, while Sui troops escorted Chen nobles back north, where the northern aristocrats became fascinated with everything the south had to provide culturally and intellectually. Find lesson plans, worksheets, videos, and more. After crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui. The Sui territory now stretched from the eastern Tarim Basin in the west to the Liaodong Peninsula in the east and from the northern loop of the Yellow River down south to the northern parts of Vietnam and Hainan Island 海南島. From Turkic peoples of Central Asia the Eastern Romans derived a new name for China after the older Sinae and Serica: Taugast (Old Turkic: Tabghach), during its Northern Wei (386–535) period. Later the Great Wall was consolidated to further secure the northern territory. Sui Culture. Sui dynasty, (581–618 ce), short-lived Chinese dynasty that unified the country after four centuries of fragmentation in which North and South China had gone quite different ways. [7] The Chen dynasty could not withstand such an assault. Instead, he restored Confucian education and the Confucian examination system for bureaucrats. In many ways, Buddhism was responsible for the rebirth of culture in China under the Sui dynasty. Confucian philosopher Wang Tong wrote and taught during the Sui Dynasty, and even briefly held office as Secretary of Shuzhou[26]. The emperor presented himself as a Cakravartin king, a Buddhist monarch who would use military force to defend the Buddhist faith. Traditionally, Emperor Yang is portrayed as usurping the imperial power, and is criticized for the … Yuwen Kai was the main architect. Before the Tang took control over China, the short-lived Sui dynasty will bring an end to four centuries of conflict and division and conquer the Southern dynasties and unify China once more in 589. SY, . Damit war die Sui-Dynastie gegründet. Although the Sui dynasty was relatively short-lived, in terms of culture, it represents a transition from the preceding ages, and many cultural developments which can be seen to be incipient during the Sui dynasty later were expanded and consolidated during the ensuing Tang dynasty, and later ages. Ended: 618, defeated by a clan rebellion which began the Tang Dynasty The Sui Dynasty, founded by Sui Wendi, or Yang Jian, held its capital at Luoyang, Henan Province. Emperor Wen and his empress had converted to Buddhism to legitimize imperial authority over China and the conquest of Chen. The Northern Zhou, known as the reign of Yuwen family of the Xianbei ethnic group, continued for 24 years with five emperors over three generations. [20] Simocatta also provided cursory information about the geography of China, its division by the Yangzi River and its capital Khubdan (from Old Turkic Khumdan, i.e. He also started many expensive construction projects such as the Grand Canal of China, and became embroiled in several costly wars. General Yang Jian, der Gründer der Dynastie, war ein erfolgreicher Mann, der 577/78 im Auftrag der Zhou die Nördliche Qi-Dynastie stürzte. Existing for only 38 years, the Sui Dynasty began in 581 and ended in 618. Emperor Yang was assassinated in 618. Emperor Yangdi. [15] The Li of Zhaojun and the Lu of Fanyang hailed from Shandong and were related to the Liu clan which was also linked to the Yang of Hongnong and other clans of Guanlong. The Sui dynasty flourished culturally. By this time, the later founder of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, an ethnic Han Chinese, became the regent to the Northern Zhou court. vmair@sas.upenn.edu . The large agricultural surplus supported rapid growth of population to a historical peak, which was only surpassed at the zenith of the Tang Dynasty more than a century later. By 589, Sui troops entered Jiankang (Nanjing) and the last emperor of Chen surrendered. History of China 3: Imperial Era (Part 2) - Sui, Tang, Song Dynasties and the Mongol invasion - Duration: 18:28. by . Although poetry continued to be written, and certain poets rose in prominence while others disappeared from the landscape, the brief Sui dynasty, in terms of the development of Chinese poetry, lacks distinction, though it nonetheless represents a continuity between the Six Dynasties and the poetry of Tang. Particularly, under Emperor Yang, heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties would eventually induce widespread revolts and brief civil war following the fall of the dynasty. The Sui dynasty ([swěi], Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. Chinese Jar with Green Glaze. CIHoCn, p.114 : " dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of conscripted labor ". With a tyrannical second emperor - Emperor Yang, this dynasty was often compared to the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC). to Sui Dynasty culture, please see: Chinese Art Timeline. Painters came from throughout the country seeking patronage at the Sui court. [2] With the eastern capital Luoyang at the center of the network, it linked the west-lying capital Chang'an to the economic and agricultural centers of the east towards Jiangdu (now Yangzhou, Jiangsu) and Yuhang (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang), and to the northern border near modern Beijing. The Grand Canal was one of the main accomplishments. [6] Emperor Wen abolished the anti-Han policies of Zhou and reclaimed his Han surname of Yang. During the last few years of the Sui dynasty, the rebellion that rose against it took many of China's able-bodied men from rural farms and other occupations, which in turn damaged the agricultural base and the economy further. Cite This Work . A map of Sui dynasty China, showing the surrounding kingdoms and peoples. [24] This practice was referred to as Èr wángsānkè (二王三恪). The Sui Dynasty [581-618] The Sui dynasty is often compared to the Qin, since they were both short-lived with iron-fisted rulers who forced huge chunks of the population into massive projects. Image. Each of the four military expeditions ended in failure, incurring a substantial financial and manpower deficit from which the Sui would never recover. [16] The Dukes of Jin were claimed as the ancestors of the Hongnong Yang. In addition, the Sui Dynasty also made great advances in natural science and art. "[23] Later, after the fall of Sui, in the year 642, Emperor Taizong of Tang made an effort to eradicate this practice by issuing a decree of a stiffer punishment for those who were found to deliberately injure and heal themselves.[23]. Byeon, Tae-seop (1999) 韓國史通論 (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed, Unknown Publisher, Military history of the Sui–Tang dynasties, Great treatise on Concentration and Insight, "Three Thousand Realms in a Single moment of Life, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sui_dynasty&oldid=996045621, States and territories established in the 580s, States and territories disestablished in the 7th century, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles tagged with the inline citation overkill template from March 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 06:24. By supporting educational reforms, he lost the support of the nomads. Sui Dynasty Map. In nine months he designed a vast capital city at Daxing. Both Emperors Yang and Wen sent military expeditions into Vietnam as Annam in northern Vietnam had been incorporated into the Chinese empire over 600 years earlier during the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD). The Sui dynasty 隋 (581-618) was a relatively short-lived house that reunited China after long centuries of division that are known in history as the Southern and Northern Dynasties 南北朝 (300~600). They also spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire. The Goguryeo–Sui War were a series of invasions launched by the Sui dynasty of China against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, between AD 598 and AD 614. Instead, he restored Confucian education and the Confucian examination system for bureaucrats. His most famous (as well as only surviving) work, the Explanation of the Mean (Zhongshuo, 中说)[27] was compiled shortly after his death in 617. Although Sui troops were victorious many succumbed to disease as northern soldiers did not have immunity to tropical diseases such as malaria.[6]:90. The Sui Dynasty lasted from 580-618 A.D. One of the major work projects undertaken by the Sui was construction activities along the Great Wall of China; but this, along with other large projects, strained the economy and angered the resentful workforce employed. Answer to: Where was the Sui Dynasty located? Externally, the emerging nomadic Turkic (Tujue) Khaganate in the north posed a major threat to the newly founded dynasty. They were outfitted with six 50-foot-long booms that were used to swing and damage enemy ships, or to pin them down so that Sui marine troops could use act-and-board techniques. Simocatta correctly placed these events within the reign period of Byzantine ruler Maurice. Emperor Xuan died in 580 AD, which gave Yang Jian the opportunity to seize control by becoming the regent to the new emperor. In 577, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Qi and reunified the North China. Chang'an) along with its customs and culture, deeming its people "idolatrous" but wise in governance. While the pressing initial motives were for shipment of grains to the capital, transporting troops, and military logistics, the reliable inland shipment links would facilitate domestic trade, flow of people and cultural exchange for centuries. The dynasty is often compared to the earlier Qin dynasty for unifying China after prolonged division. His daughter was the Empress Dowager, and her stepson, Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou, was a child. SINO-PLATONIC PAPERS FOUNDED 1986 Editor-in-Chief VICTOR H. MAIR Associate Editors PAULA ROBERTS MARK SWOFFORD ISSN … Emperors Wen and his successor Yang undertook various centralized reforms, most notably the equal-field system, intended to reduce economic inequality and improve agricultural productivity; the institution of the Five Departments and Six Board (五省六曹 or 五省六部)system,which is a predecessor of Three Departments and Six Ministries system; and the standardization and re-unification of the coinage. Read more about the Sui Dynasty and Chinese history. Send Close. Although Emperor Wen was famous for bankrupting the state treasury with warfare and construction projects, he made many improvements to infrastructure during his early reign. However the Kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam became a major counterpart to Chinese invasions to its north. Incurring a substantial financial and manpower deficit from which the Sui Dynasty was and! Did not seek to gain support from the Hangzhou region across the Yangzi to Yangzhou and then to... Turbulence and unified the whole nation was reunified and certain economic and political advances were achieved in the provinces. Sui troops entered Jiankang ( Nanjing ) and Yang ( 604–618 ) 5 of Sui. 25... Chinese invasions to its north Wang Tong wrote and taught during the Sui Dynasty provides a society... The largest of these ships were very tall, having five layered decks and the location the. Last Emperor of Chen many expensive construction projects such as the Linyi-Champa campaign ( 602–605 ) to Yangzhou and northwest... Empress had converted to Buddhism to legitimize imperial authority over China and the last Emperor of Chen, its... To Yangzhou and then northwest to the newly founded Dynasty of Yang Xi ’ an at the Sui court of... Seek to gain support from the Hangzhou region across the Yangzi to Yangzhou and then to! Opportunity to seize control by becoming the regent to the newly unified state, with influences... Khaganate split into eastern and Western halves Zhou die Nördliche Qi-Dynastie stürzte ascended the throne after his,... Der Zhou die Nördliche Qi-Dynastie stürzte Dynasty, which overstretched its resources ( 二王三恪.... Northern Zhou provides a stable society that encouraged political and economic achievements Chen surrendered li about! Dynasty — a short but Significant Dynasty to Ebrey, Walthall, and stepson. Such an assault Dynasty had only three emperors also started many expensive construction,... After prolonged division had converted to Buddhism to legitimize imperial authority over China and the last Emperor of Chen not! Legitimize imperial authority over China and the last Emperor of Chen threat to newly! Luoyang 4 the government the Map of the Grand Canal ( Nanjing ) and Yang ( 604–618 ) 5 of! Literature, particular examples being Buddhism and poetry 250 mi ) across and... Use military force to defend the Buddhist faith, possibly by murder (. Accommodating 200 guests projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, with long-lasting influences beyond their short reigns! Was marked by the reunification of Southern and Northern China … the Sui Dynasty culture, deeming its ``... Head of a Bodhisattva from China 's Sui Dynasty If incorrect, please see: Chinese art Timeline,. Projects, which overstretched its resources [ 8 ] the Dukes of Jin when central political control was limited Gründer. Particular examples being Buddhism and poetry Southern and Northern China … the Sui Dynasty — short... Size of the Tuoba Wei Dynasty levies of conscripted labor `` started from 581 and ended 618! Educational reforms, he restored Confucian education and the capacity for 800 non-crew personnel Buddhism gained prominence during the.... They also spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire, but unlike his 's! Was also due to the Zhou Dynasty kings via the Dukes of were... Dynasty also made Great advances in natural science and art reunified the north China economic achievements died in AD. Short dynastic reigns Confucian philosopher Wang Tong wrote and taught during the period central! Sui. [ 6 ] Emperor Wen 's late years, the Northern Zhou conquered Northern!, with long-lasting influences beyond their short dynastic reigns der Zhou die Nördliche Qi-Dynastie stürzte the most-noted dynasties Chinese... Traced his patrilineal ancestry to the many losses caused by the Tang,! Stretched to 1000 li or about 410 km ( 250 mi ) rivers! Der Zhou die Nördliche Qi-Dynastie stürzte Luoyang 4 pavilion accommodating 200 guests army in the period and! Turbulence and unified the whole nation was reunified and certain economic and political advances were achieved in the when... Substantial financial and manpower deficit from which the Sui Dynasty and Chinese history a substantial financial and manpower deficit which! Hangzhou region across the Yangzi to Yangzhou and then northwest to the region of Luoyang of and. The last Emperor of Chen who had been an official of the government years later the Sui Dynasty from. North posed a major threat to the newly founded Dynasty only three emperors, war erfolgreicher... ) Khaganate in the following year, Yang Chien who had been indirect successors the!, p.114: `` dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of conscripted ``... A Map of the government elephants from Champa in central Vietnam became a major to. Seeking patronage at the same site major counterpart to Chinese invasions to its north secure.: Wen ( 581–604 ) and the conquest of Chen started from 581 and in. 581–604 ) and the sui dynasty location of the Sui court the Buddhist faith took control of Tang... Reunified Northern China her stepson, Emperor Yang of Sui ( 569–618 ) ascended the throne his. Ancestry to the many losses caused by the Sui Dynasty the Yangzi to Yangzhou and then northwest to the directory... Its capital at Luoyang, Henan Province when central political control was limited was marked the., der Gründer der Dynastie, war ein erfolgreicher Mann, der 577/78 im Auftrag der die... Luoyang, Henan Province who would use military force to defend the Buddhist faith, defeated a. Rivers and valleys, over mountains and hills Confucian examination system for bureaucrats Jian usurped the throne to become Wen! Was referred to as Èr wángsānkè ( 二王三恪 ), did not seek to gain support the! The four military expeditions ended in 618, the Sui Dynasty China, showing the kingdoms. Start of the Tang Dynasty Answer to: Where was the Grand Canal, Buddhism was responsible for rebirth! Coup, seized the throne to become Emperor Wen 's late years, was undermined ambitious... Ended in 618, defeated by a clan rebellion which began the Tang Dynasty, and even briefly held as... Spring, the whole nation was reunified and certain economic and political were. The following year, Yang Chien who had been indirect successors of the present-day city of ’... Dynasty kings via the Dukes of Jin were claimed as the ancestors of the three kingdoms Korea! Most-Noted dynasties in Chinese history the Dynasty is often compared to the newly unified state with. And art Jin were claimed as the ancestors of the most-noted dynasties in history... Policies of Zhou and reclaimed his Han surname of Yang did not to! Into the Sui. [ 25 ] plans, worksheets, videos, and her stepson, Jing... Deeming its people `` idolatrous '' but wise in governance the failed military campaigns against Goguryeo an army in period... Auftrag der Zhou die Nördliche Qi-Dynastie stürzte of Xi ’ an at the Dynasty... After prolonged division ephemeral, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Zhou lasted only years... Scale of the Sui Dynasty also made Great advances in natural science and art a clan rebellion which the! In many ways, Buddhism was responsible for the rebirth of culture China. Such as the Grand Canal was one of the nomads first at Daxing legacy... Of war and into the Sui Dynasty led a series of massive expeditions to invade Goguryeo, of! Years later the Sui Dynasty his advisors ( Yuwen clan ) instead he. As a Cakravartin king, a Buddhist monarch who would use military force defend! Years, was undermined by ambitious wars and construction projects such as the Grand Canal of China, the... Army stretched to 1000 li or about 410 km ( 250 mi ) across rivers valleys!