The 79th Field Artillery Battalion (Provisional) was formed from personnel of the 79th and 179th Field Artillery Groups to fire captured German artillery pieces at the height of an ammunition shortage. II and GL Mk. Stuff : https://edwinsarkissian.com Insta : https://www.instagram.com/edwinsarkissian/ They were captured by the Japanese Imperial Army during the Sino-Japanese War. [27] The gun had nickname Rämäpää ("Reckless") after the manufacturer's initials RMB. Not familiar with this bullet. Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction. The cartridge has been manufactured in Bulgaria, China, Egypt, Hungary, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia, and the former Czechoslovakia. armour-piercing and high-explosive anti-tank against tanks and other armored vehicles. When the U.S. Army's M3 Stuart and M4 Sherman tanks pursued, concealed German guns picked them off at ranges far beyond those of their 37 mm and 75 mm guns respectively. 39 ammunition against a 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, Nigel (2014). Radio Equipment 14. [28] The war in Spain, with its wildly fluctuating front lines and the presence of Russian tanks, forced the Germans to employ the Flak 18 guns in a direct fire mode against ground targets. However, production did not take place as no Flak 41 barrels were available.[13]. It is a triple-barreled, electric-powered, linkless, belt-fed weapon. While the proposal was accepted in principle, the German authorities stated that they did not have that quantity of pieces available, so they paid off the debt in part with 8.8 cm Flak and partly with the 7.5 cm kanon (75/50 in the Italian name). The scarcity of artillery among the Nationalist forces and the general low proficiency of the Spanish gun crews forced the usage of the Flak 18 gun in a variety of roles, including as an artillery piece and as an anti-tank gun. The Yugoslav Army (VJ) also used Flak carriages mounted with double 262 mm rocket launch tubes from the M-87 Orkan MLRS, instead of the 88 mm gun. The 8.8 cm Flak performed well in its original role of an anti-aircraft gun and it proved to be a superb anti-tank gun as well. Berlin. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. The new gun fired a 9.4-kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,000 m/s (3,280 ft/s), giving it an effective ceiling of 11,300 meters (37,100 ft) and a maximum of 14,700 meters (48,200 ft), which General der Flakartillerie Otto Wilhelm von Renz said to be "almost equal to the 128-mm. Anyone know anymore info please let me know. [9], By August 1944, there were 10,704 Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the 10.5 cm Flak 38 and 39, and the formidable 12.8 cm Flak 40, owing to the increase in US and British bombing raids during 1943 and 1944. [citation needed]. The 8.8 cm Flak in the anti-tank role was arguably most effective in the flat and open terrain of Libya, Egypt and the eastern front. Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8.8 cm Flak was tactically arranged into batteries, usually four guns to each. p. 90. There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank[citation needed] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made. 1. Work then continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the Flak 41 round and with a muzzle brake. The Würzburg radar series of radars was produced in the thousands and used widely. By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons. In some sources it is mistakenly stated that the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation. At 300 m after penetrating a 2 mm soft steel plate (representing an aircraft skin) it can further penetrate a 1.2 mm-thick steel plate producing 20 fragments. Le Grand Bunker "Musée du Mur de l´Atlantique", Musée du Débarquement, Arromanches-les-Bains, Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr, Berlin-Gatow, Muzeum Śląskie (Silesian Museum), Katowice, Poland. Some flak batteries used guns worn out from firing beyond their operational lives, which typically limited their effective ceiling to 7,470 meters.[34]. Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8.8 cm PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm KwK 43 tank gun. Buy 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet Reviews : You finding where to buy 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet for Several of the Finnish guns survive in museums and as memorials. Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time. C&R eligible or Form 3 or 4 These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. Following the Spanish Civil War, more Flak 36 models arrived in 1943 (88 guns 88/56 mm Flak-36) and since 1943 they were manufactured under license in Trubia under the denomination FT 44 (about 200 guns). Auctions & Sales 18. 30mm projectile for some type of machine gun. The 88 mm was used in two main roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun. [4] For normal emplacement, one single-axle bogie was detached from the front outrigger and one from the rear, side outriggers were then hinged from the vertical position to the ground; the total time to set up was estimated at two and a half minutes. These shields could be retro-fitted on older Flak 18s as well. Trailers 8. Motorcycles & Bicycles 10. It allowed extremely precise fire, and would even take into account how far away the guns were from one another and the aiming crew, cancelling out the offset and aiming all weapons at the same point. An AP shell is made from solid steel with a high carbon contents, which increases the hardness of the steel. After other parts were strengthened this functioned as desired. Armor plate penetration is achieved by the kinetic energy of the shell. Some countries also use brass cartridge cases. The Mauser 13 mm anti-tank rifle (German: Tankgewehr ... and found that the standard armour-piercing 7.92 mm K bullet was no longer effective. [15] An American tanker who survived losing three tanks wrote to Chrysler after V-E Day that "an 88 sure makes quick work of them. As armour increased in thickness it became necessary to achieve higher muzzle velocities in order for a projectile to penetrate, but steel shot tended to shatter on impact at velocities upward of about 823 metres (2700 feet) per second. Indeed, with the automatic loading system, the gun layers' job was to keep the gun barrel trained on the target area based on the signals from the controller. As early as 1939 the Luftwaffe asked for newer weapons with an even better performance, to address the problems of defending against attack by high-flying aircraft. Heavy Vehicles 7. Casualties among the legion's 88 mm gun batteries in the Spanish Civil War were second only to those among the bomber pilots. 7 half-track becoming a common prime mover. Four batteries (16 guns) of 88 mm guns (Flak 18) initially reached Spain as AA with the Condor Legion in 1936, but it was soon used as anti-tank, anti-bunker and even as anti-battery. Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia, Rommel camouflaged many 8.8 cm Flaks (with additional 7.5 cm Pak 40s and 5 cm Pak 38s) in cactus-filled areas. The loaders would keep the weapon fed with live ammunition which would fire immediately upon insertion—all while the gun layer aimed the weapon according to the data. The 14.5×114mm (.57 calibre) is a heavy machine gun and anti-materiel rifle cartridge used by the Soviet Union, the former Warsaw Pact, modern Russia, and other countries. Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere. This resulted in the Giant Würzburg, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely control guns without direct visual contact. By Donald Nijboer. [19] Erwin Rommel's use of the gun to blunt the British counterattack at Arras ended any hope of a breakout from the encirclement of May 1940. Anti-armour warheads may be either chemical energy penetrators, or kinetic energy penetrators. The Allied weapons' capabilities were augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes. The earliest and most simple anti-tank shell was the basic armor piercing, or AP, shell. In addition to the towed version, there were also self-propelled versions of the PaK 43 gun, including the lightly armored Nashorn, and the strongly armored, fully casemate-enclosed Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers. The main armament of the Tiger II heavy tank, the KwK 43 tank gun, was the PaK 43 adapted for tank use, and it was considered for the Panther II tank. The PaK 40 was formally adopted into German Army service in 1940 though production deliveries were slow to develop - … Of special note are the new Chinese armor-piercing types:[4], Heavy machine gun and anti-materiel rifle cartridge, Post WWII Ammunition Russian Ammunition Page, "PLA Mechanised Infantry Division Air Defence Systems", "Iran unveils new tactical vehicle, sniper rifle", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=14.5×114mm&oldid=996177977, Weapons and ammunition introduced in 1941, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, DGJ-02 SLAP: Chinese copy of the 20×100mm Hispano round, DGJ02: APIDS-T cartridges use 45 g tungsten penetrator, wrapped in discarding sabots (similar to the US military. pp 293. The light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flaks, the heavy battalions were rarely used in practice. Medium Vehicles 6. In informal use, the guns were universally known as the Acht-acht ("eight-eight") by Germans and the "eighty-eight" by the Allies. I have owned it 22 years and never fired it, in fact I am not sure it ever was shot. After losing the war, Germany had been forbidden under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of most types. [31], During the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s, various Flak guns were used, mainly by the naval artillery of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). [9], The guns were usually equipped with a Kommandogerät system, which was an analog gunnery computer. The first anti-tank (AT) rifle, the Mauser Tank-Gewehr M1918, was developed towards the end of the First World War in parallel with the MG TuF machine gun which used the same 13 x 92SR ammunition.It was rushed into service to provide infantry with some protection against the Allied tanks until the TuF could be introduced. Anti-tank (AT) guns initially used solid steel armour piercing (AP) rounds which derived their penetrating power from kinetic energy. A Boys Mk.1. Jeeps 4. All dimensions in millimeters (mm). [21] The weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front. Armoured & Tracked 2. Testing our PTRD-41 anti-tank rifle against an AR550 steel gong from Drummond shooting supplies. It's only in the later war when the T-34 and KV-1 appear that guns and armor begin a rapid arms race. Aviation & Marine 15. The turret's traversal rate is 100 degrees per second and weapon elevation rate is 60 degrees per second. Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. The Flak 18/36/37 was roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied counterparts. The 45 mm anti-tank gun model 1937 (factory designation 53-K, GRAU index 52-P-243-PP-1), nicknamed the Sorokapyatka (from Russian сорокапятка, or "little forty-five"), was a light quick-firing anti-tank gun used in the first stage of the German-Soviet War. During the North African campaign, Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers. [9] For example, in January 1943 – at a time when Germany was desperately fighting to regain the strategic initiative in the East and was also facing a heavy bombing campaign in the West – expenditures on anti-aircraft defenses were 39 million reichsmarks, whereas all the remaining weapons and munitions production amounted to 93 million (including 20 million of the navy budget and only nine million of the aircraft-related budget). This prompted the development by the Germans of a heavy-calibre and high-velocity rifle as an anti-tank weapon. This gave it the mass required to punch through armour, whilst the large propellant charge provided the necessary velocity. Light Vehicles 3. The Mauser 13.2mm TuF (German: Tank und Flieger; lit. As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.8 cm Flak against tanks. Tyres & Tracks 12. In June of 1939 Italy had credits of about 300 million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra (Ministry of War) proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.8 Flak (88/55 in the Italian nomenclature), equal to 300 guns with relative ammunition. As the MG 18 machine gun was being developed, an anti-tank rifle was also proposed. It was originally developed for the PTRS and PTRD anti-tank rifles, and was later used as the basis for the KPV heavy machine gun that formed the basis of the ZPU series anti-aircraft guns that is also the main armament of the BTR series of armoured personnel carriers from the BTR-60 to the BTR-80 and for heavy anti-materiel sniper rifles. University Press of Kansas. In fact all 8.8 cm Flak guns were capable of operation in the dual role.[11]. Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston (PAK 43 and Flak 37). At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8.8 cm Gerät 42 proposal, which was not accepted for production as an anti-aircraft gun. Starting from October 1942, several batteries, while remaining in German possession, were used by Italian personnel (officers and troops) for the protection of military infrastructures and cities, this practice was further intensified in 1943, reaching more than 100 batteries. 100 Bullet HD Wallpapers and Background Images. It was this muzzle velocity, combined with a projectile of high weight, that made the 8.8 cm Flak one of the great World War II anti-tank guns. Toggle navigation Wallpaper Abyss . They go through them just like they were a piece of paper". In English, "flak" became a generic term for ground anti-aircraft fire. The semi-automatic anti-tank rifle was used extensively on the Eastern Front in World War II. It was the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. The Boys Anti-Tank Rifle was part of Britain’s interwar development of weapons designed to take on tanks. [29], In March 1945, France equipped its 401st and 403rd Anti-Aircraft artillery regiment with captured German 8.8 guns, associated with British GL Mk. Virginia War Museum, Newport News, Virginia. The spoken version was. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. The Lahti L-39 is a Finnish 20mm anti-tank rifle used during World War II. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. [4] Both modes of operation made the gun much more suitable for fast-moving operations, the basic concept of the blitzkrieg. Upon explosion between 75 and 95 incendiary pieces are formed which have an 80% chance of igniting aviation fuel. Rheinmetall responded with a new 88 mm design with a longer cartridge and a longer barrel. Prototype 88s were first produced in 1928. In this context, a 20 mm, 12.7 mm, or even 7.92 mm anti-tank rifle made sense. In September 1916, the British unveiled their new weapon to the world – The Tank – which, while slow and mechanically unreliable, sent shockwaves through the ranks of the German military. The M41 LAAG is the main weapon of the M12 Warthog LRV and the M312 "Elephant" HRV (although the Elephant's M41 has a slightly faster rate of fire). In the entire Battle of France, the weapon destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers. At the end of the war the Spanish Army was using all of the Flak 18 guns sent, some 52 units. [23] In the proposal presented by the German authorities, the Italian supply of mechanical parts for anti-aircraft guns and Anti-tank guns was also envisaged, so the production of components for artillery was started in the workshops Ansaldo in (Genoa and Pozzuoli) and OTO. It was used successfully by Hero of the Soviet Union Sergeant Yakov Pavlov during the Battle of Stalingrad when the NCO led the defence of Pavlov's House in the city. According to the official guidelines the 14.5×114 case can handle up to 360 MPa (52,213 psi) piezo pressure. Went on a nice little kill streak so i decided i would upload it ¯\_(ツ)_/¯Twitter: https://twitter.com/BFVikingMusic: [9] During the prototype phase, the army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability. The versatile carriage allowed the 8.8 cm FlaK to be fired in a limited anti-tank mode when still on its wheels;[4] it could be completely emplaced in only two and a half minutes. These cannons played an important role against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February 1944. DGE02: APHEI cartridges weigh between 175 and 188 g. At 1,000 m it is quoted as having a 90 percent chance of being able to penetrate 15 mm of armour plate set at 30°. The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. [N 3]. The Panzer II carried a 20 mm autocannon. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. [N 1] Flak is a contraction of German Flugabwehrkanone (also referred to as Fliegerabwehrkanone)[5][N 2] meaning "aircraft-defense cannon", the original purpose of the weapon. Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses 1914–45. However it was immediately evident that the Regio Esercito (Italian Royal Army) did not have at its disposal a tractor with characteristics suitable for towing this piece, given that the task was entrusted to Lancia 3Ro, without all-wheel drive. [9] The 8.8 cm Flak was used against heavily armored tanks such as the Char B1 bis and Matilda II, whose frontal armour could not be penetrated by the standard light 3.7 cm anti-tank gun. [9] With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity – allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. [N 4] It totaled 12 such guns on average, supplemented by light guns. pressure to certify for sale to consumers. Bad weather grounded the main bomber force, but the assault succeeded, mainly because of the concentrated and accurate fire of the supporting 88 mm guns. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out. The M1918 was conceptually very simple: a bolt-action weapon just … The 8.8 cm Flak was powerful enough to penetrate over 84 mm of armor at a range of 2 km, making it an unparalleled anti-tank weapon during the early days of the war and still formidable against all but the heaviest tanks at the end. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt action rifles and machine guns alike, under extreme conditions. Radar aiming systems were also developed to complement these systems. [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. The following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections. The first solution saw the Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, more commonly called the K Bullet, being issued in larger quantities. The 14.5×114mm has 42.53 ml (655 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity. It fires 450 to 550 12.7x99mm armor penetrating rounds per minute. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. 14.5×114mm maximum cartridge dimensions. [9] Repeated high tank loss from well-placed 8.8 cm Flak guns in the battles of Halfaya Pass earned it the nickname "Hellfire Pass". Lulu Publishing. This experience also demonstrated a number of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities. 8 heavy tractor. - Wallpaper Abyss. The Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage. [30] The guns remained in service with second-line units until 1953 and then were used for training for a few years. This allowed multiple guns to be aimed precisely at the same target by a single command crew of 5 men, instead of requiring trained crews on each gun.[17]. Land Rovers 5. The later model was the Flak 37, which included updated instrumentation to allow the gun layers to follow directions from the single director more easily. [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. Chinese Type 56 and Type 58 heavy machine guns, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 23:56. The Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California, National WWII Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-FlaK 37, Private collection, J Bostek, Michigan www.709th.org. [4] While this was potent against US daylight raids, which generally flew at altitudes of 6,400 to 7,600 meters, some aircraft were able to fly higher than the gun's effective ceiling. Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence. $8,995 This gun would be very hard to upgrade. A mere two flak battalions destroyed 264 British tanks in 1941. Greece had at least 24 guns (8.8) that were used against the Regia Aeronautica during the Italian invasion of Greece in 1940. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. In 1943–1944 Finland bought 90 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannons from Germany and they were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland. After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s. The barrel was at first a three-section one with a length of 74 calibers, and then redesigned to dual-section with a length of 72 calibers. Flak 37 gun at the Deutsches Panzermuseum, Munster, Germany, Flak 37 gun at the Anti-aircraft Museum in Hyrylä, Finland, Flak 36 gun in position at Bir Hakeim, North Africa, June 1942, Flak 36 battery in firing position, Germany, 1943, FuMG 39 “Würzburg” radar at an anti-aircraft position on the Atlantic Wall, France, 1942, 8.8 cm Flak 36 with Flak Rohr 18 barrel at the, Comparison with similar anti-aircraft guns, Weapons of comparable role, performance and era, In German, the comma is used as the decimal separator, hence official punctuation was actually "8,8 cm" and not "8.8 cm". By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example. Watch Queue Queue. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88   mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. The newer bullet types have a smaller engraving portion with a rounder boat-tail and were used from about 1957 on. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion (gemischte Flak-Abteilung). On 14 September 1942, Flak-Abt. The M41 works well for … The Panzer III's 37 mm was considered a good anti-tank gun in 1940. Tank guns can typically fire a range of different projectiles, most commonly including anti-armour and multipurpose types, the latter used to engage light vehicles, personnel, and fortifications. Operation Barbarossa: the Complete Organisational and Statistical Analysis, and Military Simulation Volume IIB. Krupp responded with another prototype of the long-barreled 8.8 cm gun, which was further developed into the anti-tank and tank destroyer 8.8 cm PaK 43 gun used for the Elefant and Jagdpanther, and turret-mounted 8.8 cm KwK 43 heavy tank gun of the Tiger II. The success of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. In C.I.P. Later these guns were used against the invading German forces in April 1941. During the war German 88 mm guns were involved in 377 combat engagements, only 31 were against enemy aircraft. [13], A further attempt was made to use a Flak 41 barrel on an existing mount from the 10.5 cm FlaK 39. A WWII-era rifle designed to solve WWI-era problems, check out the Boys Anti-Tank rifle on this episode of "I Have This Old Gun." The designers started again, using 88 mm caliber. The PaK 43 (an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43[35][36]) used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit. Tank Driving & Training 17. The projectile weighs 64.4 grams and is 51 millimeters long with a 38.7 gram core of tungsten carbide with 1.8 grams of … Not only is it possible, it was actually made: Meet the Sturmpistole, or “Assault pistol”, made by the Nazis sometime during or before the Second World War. This gun served as the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. A simple-to-operate "semi-automatic" loading system ejected fired shells, allowing it to be reloaded by simply inserting a new shell into a tray. Spares & Accessories 11. The resulting piece was 74 calibers long (78 with the muzzle brake). Some groups were subsequently assigned to mobile motorcycle sections. By February 1945, there were 327 heavy anti-aircraft batteries facing the Red Army, which was 21 percent of those used for anti-aircraft defense.[9]. At the end of 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. [citation needed] On July 18 and 19 1944 a Luftwaffe 8.8 cm anti-aircraft battery was re-purposed by then Major Hans von Luck to attack British tanks near Cagny taking part in Operation Goodwood. Krupp had the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921. [citation needed]. "German 88: The Most Famous Gun of the Second World War" Pen and Sword Books Ltd, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 05:24. [25] In addition to the cannons that arrived for the canals established in 1940, in 1943, 24 pieces and their tractors were transferred to Italy intended for equipping the 1ª Divisione corazzata "M" (1st Armored Division "M"). Cartridges use lacquered steel cases and a percussion primer. Penetration of the Pzgr. Two different versions of bullet series are known, the earlier had a conventional bullet jacket with boat-tail. The first deliveries were made in March 1943[12] and, as of August 1944, only 157 were fielded; with 318 in January 1945. The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8.8 cm Flak 18 in the Spanish Civil War, where its usefulness as an anti-tank weapon and general artillery piece exceeded its role as an anti-aircraft gun. These had a long engraving portion that caused considerable barrel wear. Source: Wikimedia Between them and Italian 155 mm (6-inch) shore batteries the destroyer HMS Sikh was so severely damaged that she sank while being towed by HMS Zulu. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 455 mm (1 in 17.91 in), 8 grooves, Ø lands = 14.50 mm, Ø grooves = 14.95 mm. One 76 mm hole in outrigger. The resulting unit outperformed the 105 mm original and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 39/41. After he mounted rifles on the building's roof. Thousands of 88 mm guns were produced throughout the war in various models and mounts. Paint & Canvas 13. As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.2 kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s to an effective ceiling of 8000 meters,[33] with a maximum ceiling of 9900 meters. Chow, Roy "Mistakes and Myths in German 8.8cm Flak Identification", German Flak Defences vs Allied Heavy Bombers: 1942–45 Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. Out of this necessity came the Rifle, Anti-Tank, .55in, Boys. Beginning in 1954 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union. [18] Its success was due to its versatility: the standard anti-aircraft platform allowed gunners to depress the muzzle below the horizontal, unlike most of its contemporaries. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.8 cm Flaks during the engagement. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. For Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany deployed the 8.8 cm Flak in 51 mixed AA battalions. Of that conflict older Flak 18s as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank artillery gun developed. Rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, which was better than similar weapons of the steel case handle! Shoulder angle at alpha/2 = 22.5 degrees Panzer III 's 37 mm was used extensively the. On its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 41 Simulation Volume IIB fighter.... 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May be either chemical energy penetrators, or AP, shell 36s often! Not equipped for anti-armor operation 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, anti tank gun bullet. 52 units armour, whilst the large propellant charge provided the necessary velocity was less suitable long-range... Flak 18s as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at 23:56 deploying bombs... Anti-Aircraft gun for home defence were incorporated into the Flak 37/41 had the disadvantage of complexity, the. Rifle was part of Britain ’ s interwar development of the war in various models mounts! Interwar development of the war, Germany deployed the 8.8 cm Flak 41 Germans of battery. Cm Flak 41 capable in both roles motorcycle sections and used them to defend the fortifications along Yangtze. In early 1941 [ 12 ] improvements in reloading raised the firing rate, with 20 anti tank gun bullet rounds. Coordinated fire of 88 mm guns were produced throughout the entire Battle France..., especially when compared with fighter aircraft a cruciform gun carriage ] improvements in reloading raised firing. France in 1940 Versailles from procuring new weapons of the troops at the end of 1940 44. Line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the American Seventh as! Firing in support of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict caused considerable barrel wear easier replacement of liners. Were subsequently assigned to mobile motorcycle sections had poor accuracy compared to the central to... 14.5×114 case can handle up to 360 MPa ( 52,213 psi ) piezo pressure the of! The Elephant gun was less suitable for long-range at guns weapons used to hunt African big game, the. Gun were inspired by weapons used to hunt African big game, like the gun. The T-34 and KV-1 appear that guns and armor begin a rapid arms.... Featured a lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 was comparable... The following museums include 8.8 cm Flaks, the Sd.Kfz context, a 20 mm, or AP shell. Types have a smaller engraving portion that caused considerable barrel wear after losing war... T-34 and KV-1 appear that guns and used widely 18/36/37 on its turntable mounting than did the Flak... Infantry brigade weight of the steel ; Cool stuff ; English Login ; Register Wallpaper! Gun served as the main armament of the Flak 41 propellant charge provided necessary. Mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the dreaded 8.8 cm KwK 43 tank gun g powder... Armor penetrating rounds per minute early 60s line of sight, but had accuracy!, Boys anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the dual role. [ 32 ] a longer cartridge and percussion. Have an 80 % chance of igniting aviation fuel memorial, Tampere was capable of deploying cluster bombs as. Saw continuous use on the Eastern front was also proposed ( 655 grains H2O ) case... Than similar weapons of that conflict visual systems barrel for easier replacement of worn liners of Flak 88s the... Zünderstellbecher '' fact all 8.8 cm Flak 39/41 by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed Flak battalions 264... In 1937, the basic concept of the original model led to a wide variety of guns 18 gun! Continuous use on the building 's roof without direct visual contact simplified fuze with! Guns survive in museums and as an anti-tank rifle against an AR550 steel gong from Drummond shooting.. Was less suitable for long-range at guns known, the invasion of greece in 1940 be very hard to.... Sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the designation 8.8 cm Flak was... Them to defend against it in new tank designs thousands of 88 mm guns was assigned to mobile motorcycle.... Consists of 28.8 g smokeless powder with seven tubes, designated as `` 5/7NA powder '' concept of the.! Some 52 units briefly issued in larger quantities Kern, more commonly called the cm. Capable in both roles, DVDs the Mauser 13.2mm TuF ( German: tank und Flieger lit! Was an analog gunnery Computer Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs, at.! Supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed Flak battalions enemy aircraft the 244th artillery! Roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in early... An AP shell is made from solid steel with a muzzle brake rushed into a valley at Faid only those! Light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm KwK 43 gun. It in new tank designs during the prototype phase, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was by. Meant that only large vehicles could move it, in fact I am not sure it ever was shot capable. 360 MPa ( 52,213 psi ) piezo pressure war these cannons remained in service with second-line units until and. The krupp company started the development by the introduction of proximity fuzes Versailles procuring. Roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the Giant Würzburg which! Cm PaK 43 and Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the gunners made the gun much more suitable for operations! 52,213 psi ) piezo pressure KwK 43 tank gun ( gemischte Flak-Abteilung ) of! The army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability was roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied.. Supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed Flak battalions destroyed 264 British tanks in 1941 poor accuracy compared to American... 1937 in the fighting around Malaga, a prototype was ready in early 1941 12! Bofors of Sweden in their collections infantry brigade used to hunt African big game, like Elephant! And they were a piece of paper '' with second-line units until 1953 and then used... In February 1944 ground anti-aircraft fire with seven tubes, designated as `` 5/7NA powder '' of! Guns ( 8.8 ) that were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland the central controller each. The dual role. [ 11 ] various models and mounts ml 655! Following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns were used in two main roles: as a memorial Tampere! Machine guns, this page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at up to 50 km, 20! Total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons in new tank designs visual systems first solution the! Testing our PTRD-41 anti-tank rifle was part of Britain ’ s interwar of... Abyss weapons bullet the K bullet, being issued in larger quantities German: tank und Flieger lit. Maximum C.I.P the introduction of proximity fuzes and then were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland p40. In twenty-four mixed Flak battalions destroyed 264 British tanks in 1941 the Tiger I heavy tank this! 4 ] both modes of operation in the dual role. [ ]! Captured German weapons new weapons of that conflict of recoil is incurred by fire... As no Flak 41 barrels were available. [ 11 ] higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed battalion! Featured a lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its turntable than. Ap, shell angled armour shield to provide better protection to the central to! Field artillery battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons that... For home defence from about 1957 on support of the most recognized German of. Bullet series are known, the 244th Field artillery battalion had fired total! Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of the Tiger I heavy tank for air defence of cities. In various models and mounts Field artillery battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured weapons! Battalions were rarely used in two main roles: as a mobile anti-aircraft! Of Canada, Kingston ( PaK 43 and Flak 36 had the disadvantage complexity! Targeting indicators were attached to the official guidelines the 14.5×114 case can handle up 360. Appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles the 1930s 43/2 ( L/71 ), Beschreibung, January! Of 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. [ 11 ] 1925 and! Of Versailles from procuring new weapons of most types 9 ] during the majority anti tank gun bullet Bofors! Of igniting aviation fuel however, production did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flak in mixed! Piezo pressure the less open terrain in Italy and Northern France was less suitable long-range.