The HBM has been used to aid understanding in sexual risk-taking behavior among various age (Brown, DiClemente, & Reynolds, 1991) and cultural groups (Lin, Simoni, & Zemon, 2005). Those who do not think that they are at risk of acquiring HIV from unprotected intercourse are less likely to use a condom. The combination of these factors causes a response that often manifests into the likelihood of that behavior occurring (Janz & Becker, 1984; Rosenstock & Strecher, 1988). Therefore, despite the criticisms discussed here, there is evidence that the HBM can assist in understanding sexual risk-taking behavior in teenagers. For practitioners, health concerns—emphasized by applying the health belief model—are most likely to be influential when they are emphasized in a clear and specific manner, placed in the context of overall risk for diseases, and when dietary change recommendations can be linked prospectively to tangible risk reduction [15]. In fact, the health belief model is of limited use for primary prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Perceived barriers to healthy behaviors have been shown to be the single most powerful predictor of whether people are willing to engage in healthy behaviors.. 2014;33(10):1251-60. doi:10.1037/a0033969, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. The model is based on the theory that a person's willingness to change their health behaviors is primarily due to their health perceptions. Health Psychol. The strength of the HBM lies in the fact that it was developed by researchers directly working with health behaviors and so many of the concepts possess face-validity to those working in this area. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a instrument that scientists use to try to predict well being behaviors. Development of the health belief model (HBM) In the 1950s US public health researchers began developing psychological models designed to enhance the effectiveness of health education programmes (Hochbaum, 1958). Kerry Mckellar BSC, MRES, PHD, Elizabeth Sillence BSC (HONS), MSC, PHD, in Teenagers, Sexual Health Information and the Digital Age, 2020. Therefore, by changing his perception, one can get him to adopt a new behaviour. Becker (1978) Evaluation – Cause and effect – as the study was a correlation we cannot ascertain cause and effect, we can only see a relationship between the variables. Some patients may agree they have asthma, but not believe they are susceptible to having serious asthma exacerbations. Have a positive expectation that taking the proposed action will be effective in addressing the issue. The Health Belief Model. Extreme Biohacking: Self-Improvement or Mental Health Concern? A second benefit is the believed effectiveness of dietary strategies designed to help reduce the threat of disease. The HBM provides a useful framework for guiding clinicians’ thinking about how to teach their patients and persuade them to follow the treatment plan. Second, many skills decay over time and need reinforcement. Environmental factors include both physical factors, such as the presence or lack of needed equipment or space, and social factors, such as the presence of a teacher or coach to help acquire knowledge or skills. Health motive: does the person have concern about the consequences of contracting the disease? The Optimism Bias: Are You Too Optimistic for Your Own Good? Use of the Health Belief Model in the prevention of lymphedema after breast surgery Stage of pregnancy, Health Belief Model constructs, nutrition knowledge, and dietary practices were collected both at baseline and end of nutrition education. These theories are summarized below, and specific questions and teaching strategies clinicians can use are presented. This is the least effective method, but because these methods are additive in effect, it is a good place to start. It was developed in the 1950s by a group of U.S. Public Health Service social psychologists who wanted to explain why so few people were participating in programs to prevent and detect disease. To amplify the example above, the patient who had just learned proper technique for using a metered dose inhaler from his doctor might (1) decide to try the new technique for the next 2 weeks, while (2) keeping a diary of symptom-free days to see whether his asthma control was improving; (3) review the diary at the end of 2 weeks to decide whether his control had improved; and (4) depending on the result, experience an increase in self-efficacy that he could control his asthma by using the new technique, or perhaps feel a reduction in self-efficacy if the symptom diary didn't show a positive change. The Health Belief Model can be a helpful way for health educators to design interventions that can improve both individual and public health. A very important variable is the belief in being able to successfully execute the dietary behavior required to produce the desired outcomes [5, 6, 7]. Ashraf Kagee, Melvyn Freeman, in International Encyclopedia of Public Health (Second Edition), 2017. The model was based on an assumption that people fear diseases, and that health actions are motivated in relation to the degree of fear (perceived threat) and expected fear-reduction potential of actions, as long as that potential outweighs practical and psychological obstacles to taking action (net benefits) [14]. Because of this, it includes two more elements that are necessary to get an individual to make the leap. Perceived benefits of diet adherence. Whether an individual chooses to engage in health-related behaviors is further dependent on his/her perceptions of (1) susceptibility to the health threat, (2) severity of the health threat, (3) likelihood of reducing the threat by engaging in the behavior, and (4) costs associated with engaging in the behavior. Health Belief Model. The utility of a psychosocial model, including components of the HBM, in explaining sun protection among young non-Hispanic Caucasian women has been tested longitudinally. To what extent does the health belief model fit well with nutrition intervention? Severity: does the individual perceive that getting the disease has negative consequences? However, compared to other similar social cognitive models of health behaviors, the HBM suffers from a number of weaknesses. The strength of HBM is that it helps identify areas in which discussion and teaching are needed to change patient behavior. For example, the student might have a teacher who could demonstrate how the music should sound when played correctly, provide feedback about how well the student was playing, and suggest new strategies to help the student play better. The HBM has provided a useful framework for investigating health behaviors and identifying key health beliefs, has been widely used, and has met with moderate success in predicting a range of health behaviors (for reviews see Janz and Becker, 1984; Harrison et al., 1992; Abraham and Sheeran, 2015). Such individuals are faced with the important and often overriding concern about health. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a tool that scientists use to try and predict health behaviors. By using Verywell Mind, you accept our, Mental Biases That Can Affect Your Health Choices. If you are young and in love, you are unlikely to avoid kissing your sweetheart on the mouth just because they have the sniffles and you might get their cold. First, it takes more time than we usually imagine to fully establish a skill and to work out all the problems in using it. However, a number of studies have shown that perceived risk severity is actually the least powerful predictor of whether or not people will engage in preventive health behaviors.. Since the last comprehensive review in 1974, the Health Belief Model (HBM) has continued to be the focus of considerable theoretical and research attention. If you believe that getting regular exercise and eating a healthy diet can prevent heart disease, that belief increases the perceived benefits of those behaviors. In group asthma education programs, the health educator may be able to have parents who have learned a skill demonstrate it to others to take full advantage of vicarious experience. One of the best things about the Health Belief Model is how realistically it frames people's behaviors. His doctor has suggested that he may not be using the MDI correctly and so is not getting the needed dose of medicine. These are of various types, ranging from uni- The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a widely used cognitive model of health behavior that was developed in the 1950s to explain the lack of participation in Public Health Service programs, responses to experienced symptoms, and medical compliance. Comparing theory-based condom interventions: Health belief model versus theory of planned behavior. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. This variable includes perceived susceptibility of contracting a health condition and its perceived severity once contracted. On the other hand, you probably would stop kissing if it might give you a more serious illness. Identifying perceived barriers to following a recommended treatment may be more straightforward, and is one of the goals of the well-known strategy of tailoring the regimen to the patient. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM, editors. If you think that condoms are a sign of distrust in a relationship, you may be hesitant to bring them up. The health belief model (HBM) is a value-expectancy theory, and assumes that an individual's behavior is guided by expectations of consequences of adopting new practices (Janz et al., 2002). A criticism of this model is that it lacks clear definitions of components and the relationship between them; thus the model has been critiqued for inconsistent measurement in both descriptive and intervention research. The role of coaching is important to help the learner gain confidence and repeat the self-regulation process. For example, it is often not clear how susceptible patients feel about different aspects of asthma or asthma diagnosis. In addition, various researchers have used somewhat different operationalizations of the six constructs (see Rosenstock, 1974; Becker and Maiman, 1983). At the most basic level, the HBM is a value-expectancy theory: behavior is dependent on (1) the subjective value placed on the outcome … In the context of health-related behaviors, the valued outcome is typically the improvement of health or avoidance of poor health; the expectation is the individual’s belief that a health action can increase the likelihood of the outcome. Finding ways to improve individual self-efficacy can have a positive impact on health-related behaviors. The health belief model to prevent the complication of lymphedema has begun to be used in recent years. It emerged in the 1950s, during a time in history when a modest number of preventive health services were available, such as flu vaccines and chest X rays for tuberculosis screening [38]. For a patient, seeing that another patient has learned to use a metered dose inhaler with a spacer leads to the thought “If she can do it, I can do it too,” which is more convincing than the word of the doctor, because the patient is likely to think that “This doctor has had years of training; of course he thinks it is easy.” The most effective way in which self-efficacy can be increased, however, is by direct practice with feedback that leads to a series of short-term successes as the skill increases. The four key constructs of the health belief model are identified as perceived susceptibility and perceived severity (two dimensions of “threat”), and perceived benefits and perceived barriers (the components of “net benefits”). A clinician may not be sure whether the family believes the patient has asthma at all. The HBM attempts to predict health-related behavior in terms of certain belief patterns. Perceived benefits refer to one's belief in the efficacy of the recommended health behavior in reducing the risk or seriousness of the condition. It recognizes the fact that sometimes wanting to change a health behavior isn't enough to actually make someone do it. This article presents a critical review of 29 HBM-related investigations published during the period 1974-1984, tabulates the findings from 17 studies conducted prior to 1974, and provides The Health Belief Model (HBM) posits that messages will achieve optimal behavior change if they successfully target perceived barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, and threat. Clinicians should discuss specific plans for taking a new medicine at home with the patient, and ask, “What problems do you think you will have in carrying this out the way we have discussed?” A good follow-up question that goes beyond details of administration is “Are there any other problems or concerns you have about following this plan?” Patient beliefs that the medicines may be harmful should be followed with more specific questions, such as “What harm do you think the medicine may cause?” or “What led you to think that this might be a problem?”. behavioral health theory used in professional nursing practice A person's motivation to undertake a health behavior can be divided into three categories: individual perceptions, modifying factors, and likelihood of action. Kumiko Yamamoto, Marie Mizoshita, Rie Akamatsu. In self-regulation, the individual attempts to reach desired outcomes by a process that includes controlling three factors: (1) behaviors, such as trying out new strategies and self-observation of the results; (2) personal thoughts, such as reactions to the success of one's own behavior, or setting new goals; and (3) environmental factors. Applied to tanning, the HBM suggests that individuals will engage in sun protection (e.g., wear sunscreen) if they perceive themselves to be vulnerable (due to family cancer history and skin type) to a severe health threat (skin cancer), and believe that the benefits associated with engaging in the protective behavior (diminishing risk for skin cancer) outweigh the costs (money spent on sunscreen). How Does Observational Learning Actually Work? recapp.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.theoriesdetail&PageID=13 The first is that increased self-efficacy is critical to encourage repeated efforts to improve.7,8 Research shows that as self-efficacy increases, people are more likely to repeat an action, and are more likely to persist in the face of difficulty. Other variables. According to the model, an individual’s decision to engage in a health behaviour is based on his perceptions. Modifying factors include demographic variables, perceived threat, and cues to action. Cues to action. Block, MD, Medically reviewed by John C. Umhau, MD, MPH, CPE, Verywell Mind uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Deblina Roy M.SC Nursing 1st year K.G.M.U. 2.2. LINDA G. SNETSELAAR, in Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease, 2001. HBM includes six constructs: perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self-efficacy, and cues to action [33]. Control problem behaviors, such as smoking; Master valued skills, such as playing a musical instrument; Achieve goals, such as completing a medical residency. Moreover, key social cognitive variables, found to be highly predictive of behavior in other models, are not incorporated in the HBM. HBM has been found to account for 43% of the variance in safe sex intentions in young adolescents (Petosa & Jackson,1991). The health belief model (HBM) emerged from the work of U.S. public health researchers Godfrey Hochbaum, Stephen Kegels, Howard Leventhal, and Irwin Rosenstock, who were attempting to develop models to explain why individuals fail to engage in preventive health measures. People who think they are unlikely to get skin cancer are less likely to wear sunscreen or limit sun exposure. Since the last comprehensive review in 1974, the Health Belief Model (HBM) has continued to be the focus of considerable theoretical and research attention. Hence, while an extremely popular SCM for use in understanding health behavior, it is also in a number of ways limited and may receive relatively less attention in the future. The health belief model is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The health belief model was created in the 1950s by social scientists who wanted to understand why few people responded to a campaign for tuberculosis (TB) … The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a widely used cognitive model of health behavior that was developed in the 1950s to explain the lack of participation in Public Health Service programs, responses to experienced symptoms, and medical compliance. Numerous studies have examined the capacity of the HBM to predict whether sexually active adolescents and young adults will use protection against STIs during sexual or oral intercourse and found support for HBM in understanding safe sex behaviors (Brown et al., 1991; Laraque, Mclean, & Brown-Peterside, 1997; Lin et al., 2005). At the most basic level, the HBM is a value-expectancy theory: behavior is dependent on (1) the subjective value placed on the outcome and (2) the expectation that an action will lead to that outcome. Individuals who do not think they will get the flu are less likely to get a yearly flu shot. For example, one study found that women who had a greater sense of self-efficacy toward breastfeeding were more likely to nurse their infants longer. Young people who don't think they're at risk of lung cancer are less likely to stop smoking. Events that motivate people to take action in changing their dietary habits are crucial determinants of change. HBM has been further critiqued for not fully addressing several behavioral determinants, including socio-cultural factors, and assuming that health is a high priority for most individuals (thus, it may not be applicable to those who do not place as high a value on health). Perceived barriers refer to the perception of cost associated with adhering to a recommended health behavior if it is likely to be beneficial in reducing or eliminating the perceived threat. P. Norman, M. Conner, in Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2017. Similarly, people are less likely to consider condoms when they think STDs are a minor inconvenience. health belief model 43 theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) – that is, intention predicts behaviour and is predicted by a series of other cognitive antecedents. A couple might not choose to practice safe sex if they don't see how it could make their sex life better. Most weight-loss programs, for example, set a goal of losing 1 to 2 pounds per week—a goal that can be readily achieved and builds confidence that the diet is working. L. Laranjo, in Participatory Health Through Social Media, 2016. Health Commun. The Health Belief Model (HBM) hypothesizes that health-related behavior depends on the combination of several factors, namely, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Elizabeth Boskey, PhD, MPH, CHES, is a social worker, adjunct lecturer, and expert writer in the field of sexually transmitted diseases. Changing your health behaviors can cost effort, money, and time. The Health Belief Model is one of the first theories of health behavior Developed in 1950 by a group of U.S. Public Health Service Social Psychologists –Hochbaum, Rosenstock, and Kegals. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Matthew J. Mimiaga, ... Steven A. Safren, in HIV Prevention, 2009. 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