The following sections highlight strategies and recommendations to achieve the proposed realignment. Nationally, only 22 percent of chief executives of local health departments have graduate degrees in public health (Turnock, 2001), and it is estimated that about 80 percent of public health workers lack basic training in public health (CDC, 2001a). But the future calls for a different approach, one recognizing that by collaborating with the community (geographically or otherwise defined), both schools of public health and the community will benefit. In 2008, the Government of China issued the policy paper on Health Literacy for Chinese Citizens – Basic Knowledge and Skills, and started to implement the ongoing national health literacy promotion project. Graduate programs are commonly in community health education, school health education, public health education, or health promotion. This is a primary role for schools of public health. Schools of public health have a primary responsibility for educating faculty, researchers, and senior-level practice professionals. #4: Public policies can provide direct support in ways that affect the drivers of health. Furthermore, policy has an impact on the attention devoted to diabetes, for instance, how much funding is dedicated to research, prevention, and treatment. Such field work must be organized and supervised by faculty who have appropriate practical experience. Education for public health in the 21st century requires cultural competence, and broad new competencies in information technology, communication, and genomics, and a vast reemphasis on practical aspects of training. Community organizations and leaders must have the opportunity to contribute to and influence research (often research on intervention effective-. Many of those in the public health workforce who do receive formal training in public health do so primarily via alternative pathways, that is, through certificate programs, short courses, and continuing education programs, conferences, workshops, and institutes offered by a variety of institutions and organizations. The committee determined that schools of public health have six major responsibilities. At the same time, some individuals may choose to obtain their primary doctoral level education at a school of public health. It is now April, and early tests reveal a high rate of infection in crows, as well as evidence that the mosquito population is again infested. The network will assess public health workforce training and preparedness needs and develop appropriate materials, including materials for distance learning, for use by various educational institutions in these states. An ecological understanding of public health only makes this skill set more salient. provide students with didactic and practical training in community-based public health activities, including policy development and implementation. curricula at most U.S. institutions suggests substantial non-alignment. Health education presents information to target populations on particular health topics, including the health benefits/threats they face, and provides tools to build capacity and support behavior change in an appropriate setting. A variety of undergraduate majors may be acceptable for entry to a master’s degree program. Earlier in this chapter we asserted that schools of public health should focus on preparing senior-level public health professionals, leaders, re-. • State basic principles of Health Education. Schools are not, however, the sole direct providers of such training. A second model, the Competency-Based Model of Alverno College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, divides scholarly activity into four competencies, each of which specify skills, activities and requirements that faculty must master in order for promotion. State public health laboratories and local health directors could request information about the appropriate assays or, if local facilities are not available, the expert could conduct the assay in his or her lab. Schools of public health have a responsibility to work with communities to educate them about what it takes to be healthy and to learn from them how to improve public health interventions. There are several models that might be considered for assuring that education and training of the current and future public health workforce are available. Overview. Recent technological developments have made the expertise of school faculty potentially more accessible to many public health agencies and organizations that are not located near schools of public health. In most domains of biomedical investigation, research regarding the mechanism of a disease is followed by study of therapeutic interventions, resulting in new strategies for disease diagnosis or treatment. As discussed later in this chapter, the range of future research in public health will also be radically different from what we see today. Joint degrees in public health and these disciplines might be offered by universities with the appropriate schools and resources, as is currently the case on many campuses. Examples include oversight of food safety inspection programs, disease surveillance and outbreak investigation, laboratory animal care, biomedical research, and public health program management and leadership. The ecological model for public health discussed in Chapter 1 provides a focus for the following discussion, a discussion that identifies responsibilities, explores future directions, and makes recommendations for strengthening education, research, and training in schools of public health. searchers, and faculty. ness) that has the potential to address local needs. Health Education England (HEE) is the new national leadership organisation for education, training and workforce development in the health sector. . The research base for much of this knowledge and the application of the knowledge will largely be community-based. In an 18-month study of the Texas public health workforce, Kennedy and colleagues (1999) estimated that only 7 percent of the public health workforce had formal education in public health. Closely related to the move toward more transdisciplinary approaches to complex health issues such as the one discussed above will be the move toward more intervention oriented research. Within the health domain, provision by governments of universal public health interventions and clinical services can contribute to improving equitable access of health literacy promotion services amongst all regions and cities (Goal 3 and Goal 10). Public health professionals, knowledgeable about the ecological approach to health and educated in a transdisciplinary fashion, are essential to preserving and improving the health of the public. Such diversity has the potential to strengthen the knowledge exchange among disciplines, moving us more rapidly toward a transdisciplinary approach to learning and an ecological model for action. fashion, faculties for schools of public health in the future will require both research-oriented and practice-focused components. Finally, the committee believes that schools must carefully examine how their courses are structured and how learning is provided. It is not the responsibility of a school of public health to solve the curricular problems of other schools or to monitor the education provided there. An example might be an urologist and an epidemiologist participating in a study to find a new cause of bladder cancer. Academic public health leaders—whether they reside in schools of public health, public health programs, medical schools or elsewhere—are often turned to for information needed in the formulation of policy. Transdisciplinary research involves broadly constituted teams of researchers that work across disciplines in the development of the research questions to be addressed. Through research and service, schools of public health have the opportunity to engage communities in the task of improving the health of the public. 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